Trauma is the most common cause of painful papillae of the tongue. For example, biting your tongue or eating something hot can cause this problem. Acidic foods such as orange juice and tomato sauce can make these damaged areas hurt even more.
Some people unconsciously push the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth. This can irritate the tongue. Grinding or clenching the teeth can also irritate the edges of the tongue.
Benign migratory glossitis (also called geographic tongue) is a condition that may cause tongue pain. It also can make your tongue more sensitive to spicy or acidic foods.
A painful tongue also can be a symptom of a condition that affects the whole body, such as:
Sometimes chronic skin disease is the cause of tongue pain. If so, you should visit a dentist with special training in oral medicine. He or she can help to diagnose and manage your condition.
Other medical treatments can be recommended once you have a specific diagnosis from a dentist or specialist.