This can happen when a tooth breaks off at the gum line. It also can happen when a crown or filling falls out of a tooth and there is decay underneath. To place a filling or crown, your dentist needs to expose more of the tooth. This is done by removing some gum tissue or bone.
Some people have a lot of gum tissue around their upper teeth. Dentists call this "gummy smile." This also can be treated with crown lengthening.
Before the surgery, you may get a professional tooth cleaning.
If the tooth needs a crown, your dentist may put on a temporary crown. This protects the tooth. It also makes surgery easier, because the periodontist will be able to see how much soft tissue or bone to remove.
After surgery, the area will heal in about three months. Then your dentist will prepare the tooth again. He or she will make a new temporary crown to fit the lengthened tooth. Then he or she will make the final crown.
The periodontist will make cuts that will pull the gums away from the teeth. This will expose the roots of the teeth and the surrounding bone. In some cases, simply removing a little gum tissue will expose enough tooth for your dentist to place a crown or filling. However, in most cases, the periodontist will need to remove some bone from around the roots of the teeth. Once the periodontist has exposed enough tooth, the surgical area will be washed with sterile salt water and the gums will be stitched together. Some dentists put a bandage over the stitches.
If you have temporary crowns on any of the involved teeth, the crowns may be removed before the procedure begins. The periodontist will put them back afterward.
You will be given prescriptions for a pain reliever and a mouth rinse. Your dentist will ask you to follow a somewhat soft diet. You can brush the teeth near the stitches, but avoid the gums. Remove food particles with a toothpick or a water irrigator.
You will go back to the periodontist in 7 to 10 days to have the stitches taken out. You will go back again 4 to 6 weeks later for a follow-up visit.
Your gums should heal for about three months before the tooth is prepared for the final crown. Gums can shrink as they heal. If you don't wait long enough, the edges of the crown could show. Your regular dentist will put in the crown or filling.
Some people find that after the surgery, their teeth are sensitive to hot and cold. This is because the roots of the teeth are now exposed. The sensitivity goes away with time, or when a crown is put on the tooth.
Because of the tissue and bone removal, the affected tooth may look longer than the teeth next to it.
Removing bone from around a tooth can make it feel looser. If that tooth is ever lost, it could be more difficult to put in a dental implant to replace it. Your periodontist will talk about these possibilities with you.