Glossodynia also can be related to the use of some medicines. These include diuretics (water pills), pills for diabetes and some blood pressure medicines.
Some people with glossodynia also have changes on the tongue that you can see. These changes are called glossitis. In some people, it is not clear if the two conditions are related or if they just occur at the same time.
Glossodynia may be a sign or symptom of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). BMS is a burning feeling that can affect various areas of the mouth, not just the tongue. In this case, there are no visible changes on the tongue.
The dentist also will examine your mouth for anything that might be irritating it. Examples may include:
Your dentist also will look in your mouth for any ulcers or redness. Severe dry mouth can cause pain. Therefore, the dentist will examine your salivary glands to see if they produce enough good-quality saliva. These glands are in your cheek area and under your tongue.
Your dentist may order tests to look for changes in the blood count, glucose (sugar) and vitamins. Tests for fungi and bacteria can also be done.
Low doses of benzodiazepine, antidepressant or anticonvulsant drugs may help some people.
When glossodynia has a clear cause that can be easily treated, the prognosis is good. Examples of a clear cause include thrush (a fungal infection), a sharp tooth or a vitamin deficiency. However, it can take months for the tongue to respond to treatment. Sometimes, glossodynia will disappear on its own over time.